#Resistance Values

When I start teaching a new semester of arts entrepreneurship or cultural leadership with graduate students or advanced undergraduates, I usually have them do an examination of their own values so that they can consciously consider the values that drive their decision-making. This year in my arts entrepreneurship courses (an undergrad seminar, a graduate seminar, and a venture incubation workshop) the exercise included a prompt that seemed to initiate even deeper thought. Reading aloud from Arjo Klamer’s new book, Doing the Right Thing: A Value Based Economy (Ubiquity Press, 2017) got us thinking about how our values directly impact our economic behavior. He writes:

If you embrace the idea that what we do, or what organizations or governments do, is ultimately the realization of values, you will have to recognize with me that the standard economic models of rational behavior do not suffice. The realization of values calls for something like phronesis, or practical wisdom.


When doing the right thing, people strive to realize their values. That is, they need to be aware of what those values are and then, by interacting with others, by producing, buying, selling, socializing or conversing, they try to make those values real. This perspective contrasts with the focus on preferences and utility maximization in standard economics.

Values can evolve over time, so I undertake the self-examination along with the students. “Honesty” is usually close to the top for me, along with “usefulness,” “empathy,” and for the past five years I’ve also come to understand “love” as a core value as well.  On Wednesday 1/10, my top five in order were 1-Usefulness, 2-Empathy, 3-Honesty, 4-Love, and 5-Justice. Then on Thursday 1/11/18, the President of the United States displayed his utter lack of all of these in strong and vulgar terms. The contrast between the values I believe a good leader possesses and those he exhibits in words and action is so strong that I felt an intense need to draw a starker contrast by the time I got around to the third exercise in class on Friday. My list therefore took on a different order: 1-Justice, 2-Empathy, 3-Integrity (replacing “Honesty”, “Integrity” has the additional implication of morality and uprightness – both of which the President lacks), and then 4-Usefulness, and 5-Love.

valuesLike Klamer, I embrace the idea that what we do, or what organizations or governments do, is ultimately the realization of values. My personal mission moving forward, what I will strive to do every day, is to make my values of Justice, Empathy, Integrity, Usefulness, and Love real for me and for those I interact with. Klamer offers an ideal of a value-based economy, but we can only achieve that if we live a values-based life.

Note: If you would like to do a value sorting exercise yourself, you can do an online version designed by The Good Work Project or you can download my set of “Values Cards” here: Values cards. Print them, cut out the cards, and begin by picking out the ten that are most important to you. From there, rank the top five. Save them, and think about how you realize them “by interacting with others, by producing, buying, selling, socializing or conversing.”

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Top 5 Creative Infrastructure Posts of 2017

ULI panel Pacoima

A panel convened by Urban Land Institute-LA to assist Pacoima Beautiful and LA Department of Cultural Affairs in arts incubator plan

#1. For the second year in a row, a short piece defining arts incubators was the most popular post on Creative Infrastructure. I first posted “What is an ‘Arts Incubator’?” in 2013 early in my research on the topic, but the post has gained in popularity year after year; thousands read it in 2017. My publicly viewable posts on the topic of arts incubators, unlike my formal scholarship on the subject found behind publisher paywalls, led to both formal and informal consulting engagements with communities or cities interested in setting up arts incubation programs. A journal article summarizing my research findings will be published next month in the International Journal of Arts Management; the link to “Value Creation and Evaluation in US Arts Venture Incubators: A Cross-case Analysis” will be posted here when it is available.#2. The second most popular post in 2017 is most popular overall: “Just Say NO!” is my advice to young people with specialized skills and equipment asked to take on unpaid work under the guise of an “internship.” It has been viewed almost 200,000 times.

#3. Another definitional post, “What is the Arts and Culture Sector?” was also quite popular in 2017. This post is drawn from a longer scholarly article, “Means and Ends: A Theory Framework for Understanding Entrepreneurship in the US Arts and Culture Sector,” which was published in the Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society.  

mv5bmzuzndm2nzm2mv5bml5banbnxkftztgwntm3ntg4ote-_v1_sy1000_sx675_al_#4. La La Land was a popular movie in 2017, and so was my critique of it, “La La Land of Broken Dreams.” I felt the movie did a tremendous disservice to young artists and performers by re-mythologizing what it means to “make it” as a professional artist.

#5. Rounding out the top five is another early arts incubator piece, a teaser for what would become a formal article in Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society: “Arts Incubators: A Typology.” The blog post shares results of some early field scanning, “Arts Incubators: 47 and Counting.” The arts incubator landscape has shifted around since this work started in 2013, but I hope to have made some contribution to the field’s understanding of what arts incubators are, what they can do, and perhaps most importantly, what they can’t do.

I give my own honorable mention to a post about workplace sexual assault. “Un-bully-able” was also written in 2013, but I decided at the time to password protect it and only share it with friends. Thanks to the heroines of the #MeToo movement, I felt empowered enough – and safe enough – to share it publicly a couple of months ago.

Ouroboros with textDuring 2017, I started teasing out small pieces of a book that I’m working on, putting paragraphs out into the blogosphere for your feedback along the way. I hope you’ll continue to read and respond as I continue to develop that project.

2017: that’s a wrap!


new year cork

Illustration used for my very first CI post published New Year’s Eve 2011

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Preparation for a recent meeting about a project I’m affiliated with, The Rural Cultural Wealth Lab, got me thinking about the word sharing, or share, or shared. The phrase that jumped out at me had to do with shared values and customs leading to sustainable culture. How do we share values and customs? What does it mean to share one’s time? If I give a gift, am I sharing?

‘Tis the season for gift giving; some might call that sharing. However, when I give a gift, even if I give it freely, I am not sharing because I no longer have whatever it was I IMG_5981gave away. But, when I share the custom of lighting Hannukah candles with my daughter, we experience something together; the cultural custom is shared and thus sustained. When I give an unrestricted financial gift to a nonprofit organization, I am supporting the organization’s operations, its mission delivery. But, when I volunteer along with other board members to staff an event for the organization, that feels more like sharing because I am not just giving my time (as I might do as a pro bono consultant), but sharing the experience of volunteering with other board members and staff; we are taking collective action.

The Comprehensive Rural Wealth Framework, which is foundational to the work of the lab project mentioned earlier, is based on an acknowledgement of the multiple capitals from which wealth is comprehensively derived: physical, financial, human, intellectual, political, natural, social, and – of course – cultural. These capitals can be held, spent or shared. It occurs to me that only by sharing can comprehensive wealth increase. If you hold it, it stagnates; if you spend it it’s gone; but if you share it, then everyone benefits. What might the implications be for the arts and culture sector if we all did more sharing?

‘Tis also the season of debates over tax reform. I view paying taxes as a kind of sharing. Taxes are not a gift to the government, it is me sharing 28% of what I earn so that 100% of people can have roads, and bridges, and schools. Perhaps if we could reconceive taxation as a form of sharing, there wouldn’t be such bitter fights over who gets which piece of the pie.

Happy holidays!


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“Oh, for Pete’s Sake!”


Photo from the LDI website is a view of the show floor with about 24 people; all of them are men.

LDI is an entertainment technology trade show held every November in Las Vegas. When lighting design was central to my creative activity and scholarship, I attended every year. This year, 2017, I attended for the first time in six or seven years. I wanted to see what had changed in technology since I was last there (a lot) and see what might still be the same. As expected, there have been some sweeping technological changes thanks to advancements in LED technologies. What is the same is the demographic makeup of the attendees: predominantly white, and overwhelmingly male.

I’ve been teaching in or adjacent to theatre production programs for a long time. My observation, backed up by actual data, is that there is significantly more gender parity among students interested in entertainment technology than in the entertainment professionals on the show floor. Why and where is the breakdown in the professional pipeline to entertainment technology? I last looked seriously at this gender disparity in a 2005 article for Theatre Design & Technology, finding that approximately 22% of lighting designers are women. I expected there would be more parity by now, but in 2016, Porsche McGovern, writing for HowlRound found even worse results – 20%. Entertainment technology is different than entertainment design, and traditionally even more male dominated. So again, I wonder, what contributes to the lack of women in positions as production electricians and riggers?

While I was at LDI, I met a female electrician and rigger, Krissy Kenny. She, like me, was looking around and questioning why there aren’t more women working in entertainment technology since there were plenty of women studying production in college. Overt bias is an unlikely single cause. Sexual harassment exists and is certainly a factor, but has abated since I started in the business in the 1980s (when I was routinely harassed, or worse). But implicit bias and gender stereotyping exists everywhere.

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 5.07.22 PM

Exhibit A

Exhibit A is this ad from Wenger (a staging manufacturer) and JR Clancy (a rigging equipment manufacturer), found by Kenny in Protocol magazine. Yes, an ad agency or marketing manager probably just pulled some stock images – but they could have been stock images that actually integrate creativity and engineering along with gender. The ad is a throwback to a kind of 1950s view of gender in which women are delicate ballerinas and men are sturdy workers who can handle tools. One female set designer saw the ad and commented, “I’m going to stop specifying Wenger and JR Clancy.” A close friend, a corporate communications executive for major technology company summed it up nicely, “Oh, for Pete’s sake!”

I picture a young woman, perhaps a major in theatre or entertainment technology at your local community college, flipping through Protocol magazine, seeing the ad, and subconsciously (or even consciously) saying to herself, “I’m not a ballerina and I’m not a dude – this job isn’t for me.” This company, this magazine, and the entire industry needs to do better at portraying itself if it wants to be welcoming to women. We can wear tool-belts and rigging harnesses too. Maybe if we could just find pants with real pockets

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Revised Book Proposal

[Now that I’ve written over a third of the book I’ve been working on, I’ve revised the proposal for submission to publishers, and share it here.]
Ouroboros with text

Book Proposal: An Ouroboros: Art, Money, and Entrepreneurial Action



        An Ouroboros: Art, Money, and Entrepreneurial Action is a book of connected essays that delves deeply into the relationships between art, innovation, entrepreneurship, and money. The Ouroboros, the serpent eating its own tail, is a visual metaphor deployed to shift commonly held perspectives on, especially, the relationship between art and money. Art is the head; money is the tail, feeding and nourishing the head in a cycle that enables the organism to not only survive but also thrive. Between the art and the money is the body: innovation and entrepreneurship. Innovation is understood to be a novel idea that is implemented and has impact on a domain. For that is what the artist does: create something new and unique that has impact. Entrepreneurship is conceived of as the discovery or creation of a mediating structure that can convert the artistic innovation into capital (financial and other types) that can be re-invested in the artist and the making of more art.
        Despite the apparent simplicity of the ouroboros — artists connect art with audience to generate the revenue needed to make more art – the ouroboros is an organism living inside a much larger eco-system, one which is not particularly friendly to artists, even self-sustaining ones. It is an eco-system filled with jargon, competition, power struggles, and extremes of both poverty and wealth. The very term “entrepreneurship” conjures images of high-rolling venture capitalists, shark-tank style pitch competitions, and slickly produced slide decks. Therefore, it is with some ambivalence that I continue to use the term “arts entrepreneurship” to mean something slightly different: an action and a mindset unique to artists that is as much about self-sustainability as it is wealth creation and that can result in increasing collective well-being rather than economic growth. This book endeavors to untie the knotty relationships between artists and entrepreneurship in order to answer the question “How can artists make work and thrive in this late-capitalist society?”
        The book’s ten interconnected essays are presented in four sections corresponding to the head, torso, belly, and tail of the Ouroboros: Art, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Money. The essays draw on my ten years of research, practice, and teaching in the nascent field of arts entrepreneurship to argue that entrepreneurial action leads to positive results for individual artists, but entrepreneurial action in general may not benefit the “arts sector” writ large. I spoke with dozens of artists who produce work entrepreneurially in the development of the essays; their stories serve as examples and case studies throughout the book. Other knowledge undergirding the essays comes from research conducted on artists’ professional development needs and on arts incubation practices about which I have previously written.
        Originally a theatre artist, I approach the analysis dramaturgically, assessing the given conditions, the setting, the actors (or “characters”) in the arts economy, their motivations, and the potential outcomes for both individuals and the economic social system of which we are all part. Writing for an interested lay audience, I employ a voice that bridges the gap between scholarly writing for academic publications and popular writing such as that on my blog, Creative Infrastructure. Each chapter is designed to be an individual essay on the theme of its title. Three essays are completed and the remaining ten outlined (or more); thus, the book is already 35% complete. Finished length is estimated at 75,000 words.

Table of Contents

PROLOGUE. (This is a short snapshot of the impetus for the book; it is already drafted.)

ESSAY ONE: Introduction: An Ouroboros
This chapter introduces the Ouroboros as a visual metaphor for the relationship between art, innovation, entrepreneurship, and money and the theoretical constructs undergirding each section. It explains my “dramaturgical” method of analysis and deploys that method to describe the late-capitalist arts economy and the players in it. (This essay is completed and included with the proposal.)

Part 1: Art

ESSAY TWO: Art and Symbolic meaning
This essay explores motivations for making art that has impact: the expression of symbolic meaning in which use value is present but secondary. How are meaning, value, and quality produced and assessed? Artists interviewed for this essay include Gregory Sale and Sharon Louden. (Essay is outlined and currently being drafted)

ESSAY THREE: Art, Economy, and Control of Production
Drawing on the work of economists from Karl Marx to Richard Caves, the artist is described as someone who makes unique work and maintains control of the means of the production of that work.

Part 2: Innovation

ESSAY FOUR: Novelty, Uniqueness, Originality
Novelty or “newness” can be evidenced in individual works and in and by organizations. This chapter connects individual, organizations, and systems along the spectrum of novelty by exploring the differences between the unique and the mass-produced in the arts and culture sector. The difference between multiples for efficiency of individual artist production versus for multiple sales are examined along with the sale and production of multiples for Museum gift shops. (Essay is completed and available for review)

For something to be an innovation it must not only be novel, but also have impact. This chapter looks at trends in the social practice of art and how such social practice can sustain artists while making positive change in communities.

Part 3: Entrepreneurship

ESSAY SIX: The nature of entrepreneurial action
This essay looks at examples from across the visual and performing arts to explain how artists create mediating structures that connect their novel and impactful work with their audience and other publics. (This essay is completed and available for review)

ESSAY SEVEN: Being an entrepreneurial artist
Drawing on data collected for “Artist Professional Development Needs,” this essay addresses the issue of the sustainability of artist careers. Follow-up interviews with artists inform the analysis of the entrepreneurial actions being undertaken by individuals. (Essay is outlined and currently being drafted)

Part 4: Money

ESSAY EIGHT: Abundance
Where are the sources of abundance in the arts economy? We know where there is scarcity, but this essay shifts the perspective from scarcity to abundance by showcasing the ways in which artists have used entrepreneurial action to generate the material resources they need to make their work happen.

ESSAY NINE: Selling up, not selling out
When an artist follows mission rather than money, they can “sell up” instead of “sell out.” In this essay, examples are drawn from community development (for example in Phoenix’s Roosevelt Row district), arts service organizations (such as Springboard for the Arts), and individual artists’ practice, tying together three levels of analysis: system, organization, and individual.

ESSAY TEN: A future imaginary: Eating your tail
This concluding essay connects the tail (money) back to the head (art) within the context of the arts and culture economy as it exists today and how it can be imagined for a sustainable and sustaining creative future.

        An Ouroboros: Art, Money, and Entrepreneurial Action is written for both a practitioner and interested lay audiences. The latter are well-educated adults with an interest in arts and culture, economics, and/or public policy. The former are artists and educators interested in cultural economics.

        There are several books on artist sustainability recently published or currently in development. Most of these business-of-art books are “how-to” guides rather than analysis, so the proposed book will add significant new material to that domain. The most direct competition for this book is a slim book of essays published in 2010 by the International Futures Forum, Bill Sharpe’s Economies of Life: Patterns of Health and Wealth. Sharon Louden’s Living and Sustaining a Creative Life (Intellect Books) and its sequel are comprised of artist interviews on the topics the proposed book addresses, but do not contain any analysis; instead they become some of the data that I analyze in An Ouroboros.

Readers of An Ouroboros may have also read:
Timberg, Culture Crash (Yale U Press)
Graw, Creative Enterprise (Sternberg Press)
Thornton, Seven Days in the Art World (WW Norton)
Bonin-Rodriguez, Performing Policy (Palgrave McMillan)
David, 9.5 Theses on Art and Class (Haymarket)

About the Author
        Linda Essig is Director of Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Programs in the Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts, which, as Pave Program in Arts Entrepreneurship, helped over 3 dozen student teams develop arts-based ventures for Arizona and beyond since its inception in 2006 and publishes the only research journal in the field, Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts.  She was the first director of the ASU School of Theatre and Film, now the School of Film, Dance and Theatre, where she also served as Artistic Director of the school’s MainStage Season from 2004–2010. Her research interests include value creation by and evaluation of arts incubators; the relationship between art, money, and entrepreneurial action; and factors affecting individual artist success. She is the author of three books: Lighting and the Design Idea (now in its 3rd edition), The Speed of Light: Dialogues on Lighting Design and Technological Change, and The Arizona Arts Entrepreneur Toolkit as well as articles and book chapters on both arts entrepreneurship and lighting design. Her work has been funded by the Kauffman Foundation, the National Endowment for the Arts, the City of Tempe, the Arizona Commission on the Arts, The Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Prior to joining ASU, she was on the faculty of University of Wisconsin-Madison for sixteen years.

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Mass-produced Not-art

I continue to share bits and pieces of An Ouroboros: Art, Money, and Entrepreneurial Action as I develop several of the essays in the collection. This small bit is from Essay Four, on novelty and uniqueness, the introduction to which, since revised, I posted earlier. 

I moved into a new office several years ago in a re-purposed dormitory building. The previous occupant had painted the office battleship gray; I painted it tangerine. The office I was moving out of was weighted down with the “stuff” of academic administration: book cases, file cabinets, a large L-shaped desk, a small conference table with chairs; my new office needed little of that, save for a surface on which to place a small notebook computer. The spare, brightly colored office was just what I needed to transition my work from administration back to teaching and research, but its very simplicity created a problem: it was very live in terms of sound. A simple conversation would echo off the masonry walls disturbingly. Knowing I needed to deaden the sound, I went to Pier One, the suburban mall mainstay of inexpensive decoration. There I found what I needed: mass-produced multi-media (paint + collage) representations of birds on canvas panels. The canvas panels would deaden the sound in my office and the colors complemented the tangerine of the walls. I paid $15 per panel and never thought of these as “art.” Nevertheless, several colleagues, many of them artists themselves, have walked into my office, complimented the artwork, and even asked about the artist and provenance. I hadn’t considered these canvas panels as anything more than what they are: mass-produced decorative objects. Hand-painted, yes, but hand-painted on an assembly line halfway across the world. They have a certain aesthetic appeal that masks their practical purpose as sound baffles, but that doesn’t change the fact that they are not “art;” neither their creator nor their audience considers them as such.

Little orange room

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Educating the Demos

The following was written as a comment on the NY Times website in reaction to an essay by columnist David Brooks:

In an otherwise politically neutral salutation to John McCain, columnist David Brooks couldn’t seem to resist getting a wrong-headed and divisive dig in against educated progressives. “Donald Trump and the campus multiculturalists want to organize people by ethnic tribe,” he wrote. He is grossly mistaken. Mr. Trump wants to organize people by an ethnic hierarchy in which white people of western European descent are considered somehow better, safer, or more deserving than brown people of Mexican or Middle Eastern descent; public statements during the campaign and policy initiatives attempted since (but so far blocked) support my claim. Faculty, staff and students on college campuses exist to welcome and educate students of all ethnic backgrounds; they do so to be inclusive, not exclusive; they do so to be equitable; and they do so to implement the very paideia – the education of the polis – that Brooks calls for. I will proudly wear the label “campus multiculturalist” as I welcome the traditions of Greek democracy (of which paideia is a part) alongside and equal to the traditions brought to my campus by Native students and faculty, Asian students and faculty, African students and faculty, and students descended from the European colonists of three hundred years ago. Brooks cannot equate the perspective of an individual who supports (or at least does not decry) white supremacists with the collective perspectives of thousands of thoughtful academics, whose mission is to educate the demos equitably.

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